Definition of Special Education
A range of services known as special education are given to students who have unique learning requirements. Special education is described as “Specially planned instruction, at no cost to parents, to suit the unique requirements of a child with a disability” and is governed by federal law (the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act, or IDEA). Students who have an individualised education plan may receive special education services in a range of educational settings (IEP). Students must have a recognised handicap that affects their capacity to learn and necessitates additional assistance and resources in order to engage in school effectively in order to be eligible for special education services. Children with the following disabilities generally qualify for special education in Pakistan services.
Types of Special Education in Pakistan
- Specific learning disability
- Speech and language impairment
- Other health impaired
- Autism spectrum disorder
- Visual impairment
- Hearing impairment
- Deaf and blindness
- Multiple disabilities
- Intellectual disability
- Traumatic brain injury
- Emotional disturbance
- Orthopedic impairment
Types of Hearing Loss Described in Special Education
There are three main types of hearing impairment: conductive, sensorineural, and mixed.
Conductive hearing impairments are caused by a problem in the outer or middle ear that prevents sound from being conducted to the inner ear. Sensorineural hearing impairments are caused by damage to the hair cells in the inner ear or to the auditory nerve. Mixed hearing impairments are a combination of both conductive and sensorineural impairments.
Conductive hearing impairments can be temporary or permanent. Temporary conductive hearing impairments can be caused by things like earwax buildup, an infection, or a foreign object in the ear. Permanent conductive hearing impairments are usually caused by problems with the bones in the middle ear or by damage to the eardrum.
Sensorineural hearing impairments can also be temporary or permanent. Temporary sensorineural hearing impairments can be caused by things like exposure to loud noise, certain medications, or an infection. Permanent sensorineural hearing impairments are usually caused by damage to the hair cells in the inner ear or by damage to the auditory nerve.
Mixed hearing impairments are a combination of both conductive and sensorineural impairments. They can be caused by things like birth defects, head injuries, tumours, and certain diseases.
Sensorineural Hearing Loss
When the hearing nerve or the inner ear are harmed, hearing loss of this kind results. This loss typically happens when the cochlea’s hair cells sustain some sort of trauma.
The most typical form of hearing loss is sensorineural. Aging, exposure to loud noise, trauma, illness, some medications, or a genetic condition can all contribute to it. Hearing aids can be helpful for many persons with this type of hearing loss even though it is often not curable through medicine or surgery.
Conductive Hearing Loss
When sound waves cannot travel all the way through to the inner ear, hearing loss of this type develops in the outer or middle ear. Earwax or a foreign item in the ear canal may be blocking sound, fluid, an infection, or a bone anomaly may be obstructing the middle ear space, or the eardrum may have been wounded.
Through treatment or surgery, conductive hearing loss may be cured in some people. Children with repeated ear infections or those who place foreign items in their ear canals are more likely to develop conductive hearing loss.
Mixed Hearing Loss
A person may occasionally experience both conductive and sensorineural hearing loss. They might already have conductive hearing loss in addition to sensorineural hearing loss.
Finding out exactly what kind of hearing loss you have and the best hearing care option for you depend on the results of a hearing test. There are numerous sizes, designs, and technological options for hearing aids, as well as numerous alternatives.
Causes Of Hearing Loss Described in Special Education
Noise Pollution at Work
No more than 85 dB of noise should be present. If it is higher, attempt to lower the volume or put on earplugs. Noise pollution inside of rooms can be reduced even by noise-reducing techniques like installing carpeting or wall coverings.
Home Electronics’ Volume Knobs
TV, radio, and stereo volumes should be kept as low as possible. Where headphones are worn, such as with mobile MP3 players (>> learn more about MP3 Players and Hearing Damage), special precautions must be taken. Because of the competition with engine and road noise, sound systems in cars are frequently turned up too loud, which dangerously increases the amount of noise you are subjecting your ears to.
Discos and Concerts
In some nations, earplugs are required to be distributed at sporting events and nightclubs. Even while it might be better to lower the volume to a reasonable level, this isn’t always practicable in certain settings. Because of this, always use the provided earplugs or carry your own earplugs. Never stand too close to a loudspeaker and avoid spending too much time in a very noisy setting. Every so often, give your ears a rest.
Eateries and Coffee Shops
Restaurants and cafes frequently have noise levels that are dangerous. Particularly young children and babies may be exposed to harmful noise without their parents’ knowledge. Avoid loud eateries and coffee shops, or take note of the locations of the loudspeakers and make sure your kids are at a safe distance away from them.
Loud Equipment and Tools
If you have to use loud equipment, put on ear protection. This also holds true while using a power drill or lawnmower.
Teach your kids about the delicate nature of their hearing from a young age. Be careful that some electronic games and toy firearms might be harmful to your hearing.
Unidentified Objects in the Ear
Never use cotton buds since the harm they do outweighs the advantages. Ear wax is frequently not removed by cotton buds. They merely push the substance forward of the ear drum and deep into the ear canal. This makes ear infections more likely, especially in kids. An increase in ear wax production is yet another adverse impact of cotton buds. The same holds true for fingers, towel corners, handkerchief corners, etc. When taking a shower, etc., properly wipe your ears with water.
Hearing Loss Assessment in Special Education
There are a few different ways to assess hearing loss in individuals. One common way is to use audiometry, which measures an individual’s response to sound. This can be done through either pure-tone audiometry or speech audiometry. Pure-tone audiometry assesses an individual’s ability to hear tones of different pitches, while speech audiometry assesses an individual’s ability to understand spoken words.
Another way to assess hearing loss is through otoacoustic emissions testing. This test measures the response of the inner ear to sound by measuring the echo that is produced when sound waves hit the eardrum. This echo is then transmitted through the middle ear and reflected back out into the environment.
Lastly, auditory brainstem response testing can also be used to assess hearing loss. This test measures electrical activity in the brain in response to sound. It can be used to diagnose hearing loss in infants and young children who are unable to participate in other forms of testing
What is special education in Pakistan?
The Special Education Department is a branch of the Government of Punjab in Pakistan. The department addresses the special education needs of disadvantaged children, particularly those who are deaf, blind, intellectually retarded, or physically challenged.
What are the types of special education?
In most public school settings, there are six major forms of special education.
What is the role of special education?
Special education is a critical pillar of society. It enables pupils to properly develop their abilities. It focuses on the individual’s requirements in order for them to realise their full evolutionary potential. It prepares kids to function in an inclusive society.
What is the role of special education?